pISSN 1225-8962
eISSN 2287-982X

For Authors

Enacted on June 1994
Revised on March 2024

General Information

The Physical Therapy Korea (print ISSN 1225-8962; online ISSN 2287-982X) is an official, peer-reviewed journal of the Korean Research Society of Physical Therapy. This jounal is published three times a year, on April 20, August 20, and December 20. The abbreviated journal name is Phys Ther Korea. All manuscripts must be written in English, and submitted through online submission system (
The Physical Therapy Korea is currently abstracted/indexed in the Korea Citation Index (KCI), KoreaScience, Korean Medical Database (KMbase), Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Korean studies Information Service System (KISS), Research Information Sharing Service (RISS), the National Assembly Digital Library, Kyobo Scholar, Google Scholar, and DOI/Crossref.
Submitted manuscripts should be prepared according to the following instructions. Manuscripts that do not adhere to the instructions will be returned to the corresponding author. The Physical Therapy Korea respects recommendations of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors ( in cases not described otherwise below.

Aims and Scopes

The Physical Therapy Korea is an official journal of the Korean Research Society of Physical Therapy. The society has been established in 1994 with the aim of enhancing research, education and practice in Physical Therapy and facilitating communications among clinicians and researchers in the area of rehabilitation sciences. The Physical Therapy Korea publishes original articles, review articles, and case reports related to not only Physical Therapy practice (i.e., musculoskeletal, neurological, cardiopulmonary, orthopaedic, sports, geriatric, pediatric and others), but also foundation and application of the Physical Therapy (i.e., biomechanics, motor control, anatomy, neuroscience, rehabilitation, research design, statistical procedures, outcome measures, bioengineering, assistive and robotic devices, big data analysis and others).

Manuscript Submission

Authors should submit manuscripts to the editorial office via online submission system ( Any inquiries regarding the online submission process should be directed to the editorial office.

Editorial Office

Editor-in-Chief: Chung-hwi Yi, PT, PhD, Woochol Joseph Choi, PT, PhD
Tel: +82-33-760-2972, +82-33-760-2496
Address: Department of Physical Therapy, Yonsei University, 1 Yonseidae-gil, Wonju 26493, Korea

Research and Publication Ethics

The journal adheres to the guidelines and best practices suggested by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) ( and the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) (

1. Conflict-of-interest Statement

The corresponding author is required to summarize all authors’ conflict of interest disclosures. Disclosure form shall be the same as ICMJE Disclosure Form ( A conflict of interest may exist when an author (or the Information for Authors Physical Therapy Korea PTK author’s institution or employer) has financial or personal relationships or affiliations that could influence (or bias) the author’s decisions, work, or manuscript. All authors should disclose their conflicts of interest, including (1) financial relationships (such as employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony), (2) personal relationships, (3) academic competition, and (4) intellectual passion. These conflicts of interest must be included at the end of the manuscript.
All funding sources should be declared on a title page or in Funding section of the manuscript. If an author’s disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is determined to be inaccurate or incomplete after publication, a correction will be published to revise the original published disclosure statement, and additional action may be taken as necessary.

2. Author and Authorship

An author is considered as an individual who has made substantial intellectual contributions to a published study and whose authorship continues to have important academic, social, and financial implications.
Authorship credit should be based on: (1) substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work, or to the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; (2) the drafting of the article or reviewing it critically for important intellectual content; (3) final approval of a version to be published; and (4) agreement on taking accountability for the accuracy or integrity of the work. Authors should meet these criteria. These criteria distinguish the authors from other contributors. When a large, multicenter group has conducted the work, the group should identify the individuals who accept direct responsibility for the manuscript. When submitting a manuscript authored by a group, the corresponding author should clearly indicate the preferred citation and identify all individual authors as well as the group name. Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group alone does not constitute authorship.
The list and order of authors should be carefully decided prior to submission. Once a submitted manuscript is accepted, no addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names are allowed, unless otherwise requested with critical reasons. To request such changes, the corresponding author sends an email to the editor, accompanying (1) reasons for the changes and (2) signed confirmation from of all authors who agree with the changes. The editor then makes a decision based on the provided information.
Generative artificial intelligence (AI) including language models, chatbots, image creators, machine learning, or similar technologies do not qualify for authorship. The technologies listed above may be used in enhancing readability and language accuracy in scientific writing. The responsibility for the manuscript’s integrity ultimately rests with the human authors, and the authors employing generative AI tools in manuscript preparation are required to disclose their use in the acknowledgements section. Such disclosure should detail the specific tools used, including the model name, version, and manufacturer, and explain the capacity in which they were employed. Should the use of AI extend beyond language enhancement, the methods and tools used must be detailed in the Materials and Methods section as a formal part of the research design.

3. Protection of Human and Animal Rights

In reporting results from experiments that involve human subjects, it should be stated that the study was performed according to the Helsinki Declaration of 1975 (revised 2013), or the study protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) of the institution, or signed consent forms were obtained from all participants if the study was conducted in the institution that has no IRB. Clinical studies that do not meet the Helsinki Declaration will not be considered for publication.
In reporting results of an animal study, a statement should be provided indicating that the experimental processes, such as the breeding and the use of laboratory animals, were approved by the Research Ethics Committee (REC) of the institution where the experiment was performed. If the institution did not have REC, our journal recommend authors to state that they followed NIH Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, Commission on Life Sciences, National Research Council, The authors should preserve raw data for at least 5 years after publication and should provide the data if required by the Editorial Board.

4. Registration of the Clinical Research and Data Sharing Policy

Research that deals with clinical trial is recommended to register to the primary national clinical trial registration site such as, or others accredited by World Health Organization or ICMJE. This journal follows the data sharing policy described in “Data Sharing Statements for Clinical Trials: A Requirement of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. The ICMJE’s policy regarding trial registration is explained at If the data sharing plan changes after registration this should be reflected in the statement submitted and published with the manuscript, and updated in the registry record.

5. Originality and Duplicate Publication

All submitted manuscripts should be original and should not be in consideration by other scientific journals for publication. Any part of the accepted manuscript should not be duplicated in any other scientific journals without permission of the Editorial Board, although the figures and tables can be used freely if the original source is verified according to Creative Commons license. It is mandatory for all authors to resolve any copyright issues when citing a figure or table from other journals that is not open access.

Similarity Check is a multi-publisher initiative to screen published and submitted content for originality.crossref To find out more about Similarity Check, visit All manuscripts submitted to PTK may be screened, using the iThenticate tool, for textual similarity to other previously published works.

6. Sex and Gender Equity in Research

Submitted manuscripts must take into consideration sex/gender differences and not be gender-specific. Additionally, manuscripts must describe the sex/gender of the subjects and the reasons for reporting any gender-specific data. Authors should consider that their research ought to contribute to future studies, knowledge creation, and be useful for those of diverse groups (especially in terms of sex/gender). It is also recommended that authors provide gender-specific data, when appropriate, in describing scientific validity or specifically state they are studying gender-specific or rare diseases.

7. Process for Managing Research and Publication Misconduct

When the journal faces suspected cases of research and publication misconduct, such as redundant (duplicate) publication, plagiarism, fraudulent or fabricated data, changes in authorship, undisclosed conflict of interest, ethical problems with a submitted manuscript, appropriation by a reviewer of an author’s idea or data, and complaints against editors, the resolution process will follow the flowchart provided by COPE ( The discussion and decision on the suspected cases are carried out by the Editorial Board.

8. Editorial Responsibilities

The Editorial Board will continuously work to monitor and safeguard publication ethics: guidelines for retracting articles; maintenance of the integrity of academic records; preclusion of business needs from compromising intellectual and ethical standards; publishing corrections, clarifications, retractions, and apologies when needed; and excluding plagiarized and fraudulent data. The editors maintain the following responsibilities: responsibility and authority to reject and accept articles; avoid any conflict of interest with respect to articles they reject or accept; promote the publication of corrections or retractions when errors are found; and preserve the anonymity of reviewers.

Preparation of Manuscript – Article types

Article types of the Physical Therapy Korea include original articles, case reports, and review articles. All publications should be written in English. Authors whose 'first' language is not English should arrange for their manuscripts to be written in English prior to submission.

1) Original articles: Original articles should contain results of clinical or basic research and should be well scientifically described to be accepted. The abstract should not exceed 300 words, and the body of main text should not exceed 5,000 words, excluding the abstract, references, tables, and figure captions. References should not exceed 50, and Tables and Figures do not exceed 10. The manuscript should be arranged in the following order: (1) title page; (2) abstract and keywords; (3) introduction; (4) materials and methods; (5) results; (6) discussion; (7) conclusions; (8) funding; (9) acknowledgements; (10) conflicts of interest; (11) author contributions; (12) references; (13) tables; and (14) figures.

2) Case reports: Case reports shall cover states of diseases/conditions/disorders that have not been previously reported or have been rarely seen. However, those that have been already reported but are distinctively different from the previous reports can also be published in this journal. The abstract should not exceed 250 words, and the body of main text should not exceed 2,500 words, excluding the abstract, references, tables and figure captions. References should not exceed 40, and Tables and Figures do not exceed 10. Case reports should be organized in the following order: (1) title page; (2) abstract and keywords; (3) introduction; (4) case report(s); (5) discussion; (6) funding; (7) acknowledgements; (8) conflicts of interest; (9) author contributions; (10) references; (11) tables; and (12) figures. The introduction shall briefly describe general backgrounds and significances related to the relevant case. The discussion shall focus on what the case report emphasizes, and the conclusion shall be summarized at the end without establishing a separate section for the conclusion.

3) Review articles: Review articles are comprehensive review and summary of published results under a topic of interest. The abstract should not exceed 300 words, and the length of the main text should not exceed 6,000 words. References should not exceed 100. Review articles should be organized in the following order: (1) title page; (2) abstract and keywords; (3) introduction; (4) main body; (5) discussion; (6) funding; (7) acknowledgements; (8) conflicts of interest; (9) author contributions; (10) references; (11) tables; and (12) figures.

Preparation of Manuscript – Format details

1) Title page

The title page should contain the following information: (1) title, which should be concise but informative; (2) all authors’ full names and their academic degrees, affiliation, city, country; (3) word count of abstract and main text; (4) corresponding author’s name, e-mail, ORCID (Open Researcher and Contributor ID). An example of the title page is available at

2) Abstract and Keywords

An abstract should be concise and should not exceed 300 words for original and review articles or 250 words for case reports. A structured abstract should consist of Background, Objects, Methods, Results, and Conclusion. 3 to 6 keywords should be provided right below the abstract (in alphabetical order, separated by semicolons) as follows: Back pain; Ligaments; Muscles; Neck pain; Pathology. For the selection of keywords, refer to the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) in PubMed (

3) Introduction

A brief background information, including findings of related research, should be logically provided to develop and justify research questions and hypotheses that authors want to address in their research study.

4) Materials and Methods

The explanation of the experimental methods should be concise and specific enough to allow duplication by other researchers. Procedures that have been published previously should not be described in detail. However, new or significant modifications of previously published procedures need full descriptions. In cases of clinical studies or experiments involving humans or laboratory animals, this section should contain ethical approval status. If author’s institution does not have ethics committee, please state that all experimental procedures followed the NIH guideline for human subjects ( and all subjects signed on informed consents, and the Research Ethics Committee guideline for animals. Ensure correct use of terms on sex (when reporting biological factors) and gender (identity, psychosocial or cultural factors), and, unless inappropriate, report the sex and/or gender of study participants, the sex of animals, and describe the methods used to determine sex and gender. If the study was done involving a particular population, for example only one sex, authors should justify why. Authors should define how they determined race or ethnicity and justify their relevance. The sources of materials and equipment should be provided along with details of manufacturers (i.e., name of company). Details on the statistical analyses and criteria for determining significance levels should be provided.

Examples of Ethics Statement are shown below:
- Example for a study involving human subjects
The present study protocol was reviewed and approved by the Institutional Review Board at ### National University (approval No. 2020001). A signed informed consent was obtained by all subjects when they were enrolled.

- Example for a study involving animal subjects
The procedures used and the care of animals were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) in ### National University (approval No. 2020002).

- Example for clinical trials
This is randomized controlled trials, registered at Clinical Research information Service (CRIS) ( (number KCT 2020003). This study protocol contains data sharing plan following the ICMJE statement (

5) Results

This section should include a concise textual description of the data along with complementary tables and figures, in the same order as they appear in the Materials and Methods section. The textual description and tables/figures should complement each other, and delivery of the same information should be avoided.

6) Discussion

In this section, the results should be interpreted thoroughly and concisely without repeating information provided in the Materials and Methods, and Results sections. Logical answers to the research questions, and/or testing results of hypotheses established in the Introduction section should be provided. The discussions should be related to results of the study with comparison with previous results reported by others.

7) Conclusions

The conclusions or opinions by the author(s) drawn from the Results and Discussion sections should be described concisely, while avoiding a simple summary or redundant information. Future study direction or anticipated impacts are also best avoided.

8) Funding

Any financial supports for the work should be stated. Funding to the research should be provided here. Providing a FundRef ID is recommended including the name of the funding agency, country and if available, the number of the grant provided by the funding agency. If the funding agency does not have a FundRef ID, please ask that agency to contact the FundRef registry (e-mail: Additional detailed policy of FundRef description is available from Even in case the author(s) received no financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article, the authors should declare it: None to declare.

9) Acknowledgements

The persons or institutions that contributed to the work but were not included as co-authors may be acknowledged. Any technical supports should also be acknowledged as well. Funding sources, which are informed in the Funding section, should not be written in this section.

10) Conflicts of Interest

All authors’ conflict of interest should be declared. A conflict of interest may exist when an author (or the author’s institution or employer) has financial or personal relationships or affiliations that could influence (or bias) the author’s decisions, work, or manuscript. All authors should disclose their conflicts of interest, including (1) financial relationships (such as employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony), (2) personal relationships, (3) academic competition, and (4) intellectual passion.

11) Author Contributions

Enter all authors’ contributions in the submission system during submission. The contributions of all authors must be described using the CRediT (Contributor roles Taxonomy) (
To qualify for authorship, all contributors must meet at least one of the core contributions: conceptualization, data curation, formal analysis, funding acquisition, investigation, methodology, project administration, resources, software, supervision, validation, visualization, writing an original draft, and reviewing and editing. Authors may also satisfy the other remaining contributions; however, these alone will not qualify them for authorship.
Contributions will be published with the final article, and they should accurately reflect contributions to the work. The submitting author is responsible for completing this information at submission, and it is expected that all authors will have reviewed, discussed, and agreed to their individual contributions prior to manuscript submission.

• Example of author contributions:
- Conceptualization: ***, ***. Data curation: ***, ***. Formal analysis: ***, ***. Funding acquisition: ***, ***. Investigation: ***, ***. Methodology: ***, ***. Project administration: ***, ***. Resources: ***, ***. Software: ***, ***. Supervision: ***, ***. Validation: ***, ***. Visualization: ***, ***. Writing – original draft: ***, ***. Writing – review & editing: ***, ***.

12) References

References should be numbered serially in order of appearance in text, with reference numbers in brackets ([xx]). If referring to more than one sequential references, list all numbers ([1,2], [1-3], or [1,3-5]).
References should be listed on a separate sheet at the end of the article in the order of citation. Reference format should conform to the Physical Therapy Korea Endnote style. Journal abbreviations should also conform to the Physical Therapy Korea Endnote style ( List all authors when there are six or fewer; when there are seven or more, list six and add “et al.”

• Journal article: Surname and initials of author(s). Title of article. Name of journal Year;Volume(Number):Pages.
1. Lee KE, Baik SM, Yi CH, Kim SH. Electromyographic analysis of gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, hamstring and erector spinae muscles activity during the bridge exercise with hip external rotation in different knee flexion angles in healthy subjects. Phys Ther Korea 2019;26(3):91-8.
2. Alayat MSM, Alshehri MA, Shousha TM, Abdelgalil AA, Alhasan H, Khayyat OK, et al. The effectiveness of high intensity laser therapy in the management of spinal disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil 2019;32(6):869-84.
3. Cook CJ, Cook CE, Reiman MP, Joshi AB, Richardson W, Garcia AN. Systematic review of diagnostic accuracy of patient history, clinical findings, and physical tests in the diagnosis of lumbar spinal stenosis. Eur Spine J 2019. [Epub].

• Book: Surname and initials of author(s). Title. (Edition.) Publisher; Year; (Pages.)
4. Kisner C, Colby LA. Therapeutic exercise: foundations and techniques. 7th ed. Davis Company; 2017; 63-5.

• Book chapter: Surname and initials of author(s). Title of chapter. In: Surname and initials of editor(s). Title of book. (Edition.) Publisher; Year; Pages.
5. Szklut SE, Breath DM. Learning disabilities. In: Umphred DA editor. Neurological Rehabilitation. 4th ed. Mosby; 2001;124-7.

• Dissertation
6. Lee WH. Effect of rotational load on the thickness and activity of abdominal muscles during shoulder horizontal abduction in lying on the foam roller in subjects with and without low back pain. Seoul, Yonsei University, Doctoral Dissertation. 2012.

• Internet resource: Surname and initials of author(s). Title. Publisher [Internet]; Date of publication [date of citing]. Available from: URL
7. Foot Scientific. Elevate drop foot brace. Foot Scientific [Internet]; 2013 Mar 4 [cited 2015 Jan 15]. Available from:

13) Tables and Figures

• Tables
Every table must have a descriptive title and an explanatory paragraph that make the data understandable without reference to the text. Each must be typed double-spaced on a separate page and numbered with Arabic numerals. Explain in footnotes all nonstandard abbreviations that are used in each table. For footnotes, use the following symbols, in this sequence: a, b, c, d, e, f, and so on. Compose tables in WORD; do not insert as graphic elements. Number tables with Arabic numerals in the order in which they appear in the text. Place each table on a separate page.

• Figures and figure captions
Figures and images should be kept to a minimum and should accompany the manuscript. The preferred format for illustrations is TIFF with high resolutions. Color figures may be reproduced in print if wanted, but the authors are expected to contribute toward the cost of publication. Captions must accompany each illustration and should be typed on a separate page. Do not embed artwork within the text; figures should be supplied as separate files.

14) Other Rules

• Abbreviations
Abbreviations must be defined at first use in each of the following: text, tables, and figure captions.

• Units of measurement
Units of measurement must conform to the International System (SI) of Units: year(s), y; month(s), mo; day(s), d; hours, h; minutes, min; second(s), s; grams, g; liters, L; meters, m; sample size, n; degrees of freedom, df; standard error of the mean, SE; standard deviation, SD; probability, p.

• Names of devices, drugs, and other products
Generic names should be used. When proprietary brands are used in research, include the brand name and the name of the manufacturer in parentheses after the first mention of the generic name in the Materials and Methods section. Use any trademark (TM) and registration (Ⓡ) symbols required by law.

Peer Review and Publication Process

1) Peer Review Process

The Physical Therapy Korea uses double-blind peer review process, and the identities of the authors and reviewers are hidden for both parties.
(1) The editorial office assigns a manuscript number once they receive an article through online submission system.
(2) Assignment of reviewers · The editor-in-chief asks an editor to assign two reviewers for the submitted manuscript.
· If an editor submits a manuscript, the editor-in-chief makes sure that the submitted manuscript is handled by one of other editorial board members except the editor.
· Reviewers should have research expertise in the same area of the submitted manuscript and should not be affiliated with the same organization of the submitted authors.
· Authors can express concerns on the potential negative reviewers to the editorial board, and the editorial board determines if the authors’ request is reasonable.
· Invited reviewers can refuse the review invitation with any reasons, and the editorial board determines if the reviewer’s request is reasonable.
· If reviewers have conflicts of interest in reviewing the submitted manuscript, the reviewers should be excluded in the review process.
(3) Incomplete and poorly formatted manuscripts will be sent back to the author for correction prior to review process.
(4) The editor decides on publication within 5 weeks based on results provided by reviewers. If needed, the editor calls for an editorial meeting to make a decision.
(5) If a decision is “accept” or “reject”, the editor recommends the decision to the editor-in-chief so he/she can notify the result to authors.
(6) If a decision is “major revision” or “minor revision”, the editor recommends the decision to the editor-in-chief so he/she can notify the result to authors, requesting a revision.
(7) If authors are requested to revise the manuscript, they should upload a revision within 30 days. If needed, authors can request an extension to submit a revision.
(8) For accepted articles, the editor-in-chief sends the accepted manuscript to authors and the publisher so they can proofread the manuscript prior to publication.
(9) Publication fee
- The Physical Therapy Korea uses an Open Access publishing model in which all published articles are freely available to readers directly from the Journal's website. This publishing model, however, is based on publication fee. No publication fees are charged. However, if authors who want to acknowledge funding sources in the manuscript, 400,000 KRW is charged.

2) Acceptance Letter

Once a manuscript has been accepted for publication in the Physical Therapy Korea, a letter of acceptance for publication can be issued if authors requested.

3) Printing

The authors should proofread and edit their accepted manuscript carefully prior to printing. Once proofread, authors are responsible for contents of the manuscript (i.e., text, figures, tables, etc).

4) Feedback after Publication

If the authors or readers find any errors, or contents that should be revised, corrections/revisions can be requested by authors or the editorial board. The editorial board may consider erratum, corrigendum, or a retraction. If there is a reader’s opinion on the published article with a form of Letter to the Editor, it will be forwarded to the authors. The authors can reply to the reader’s letter. The letter to the editor and the author’s reply may be also published.

5) How the Journal Handles Complaints and Appeals

The policy of Physical Therapy Korea is primarily aimed at protecting the authors, reviewers, editors, and the publisher of the journal. If not described below, the process of handling complaints and appeals follows the guidelines of the Committee of Publication Ethics available from:

• Who complains or makes an appeal?
Submitters, authors, reviewers and readers may register complaints and appeals in a variety of cases as follows: falsification, fabrication, plagiarism, duplicate publication, authorship dispute, conflict of interest, ethical treatment of animals, informed consent, bias or unfair/inappropriate competitive acts, copyright, stolen data, defamation, and legal problem. If any individuals or institutions want to inform the cases, they can send a letter via E-mail: For the complaints or appeals, specific data along with answers to all factual questions (who, when, where, what, how, why) should be provided.

• Who is responsible to resolve and handle complaints and appeals?
The Editor, Editorial Board, or Editorial Office is responsible for them. A legal consultant or ethics editor may be able to help with the decision making.

• What may be the consequence of remedy?
It depends on the type or degree of misconduct. The consequence of resolution will follow the guidelines of the Committee of Publication Ethics (COPE).

Copyright and Distribution

1) Copyright
All authors of accepted manuscripts must sign a copy of the Journal’s “Copyright Transfer Form and submit it through online submission system (, and the publication rights and ownership belong to the Korean Research Society of Physical Therapy.

2) Distribution
• Those who pay the annual membership fee will have one journal sent within seven days of its publication (3 times a year). The board of directors decides the approval and the subscription fee for a private sale of the journal or for group subscriptions.
• Those who do not pay the annual membership fee, or non-members who want to subscribe to the journal, must pay a subscription fee that is separate from the membership fee.

Advertising Policy

Advertisements are reviewed in light of appropriate ethical considerations before being accepted for publication. The publication of advertisements relies on the responsibility of the advertiser to comply with all legal requirements relating to the marketing and sale of the products or services advertised. The publication of an advertisement neither constitutes nor implies a guarantee or endorsement, by the Korean Research Society of Physical Therapy, of the product or service advertised. The Korean Research Society of Physical Therapy reserves the right to discontinue any advertisements.


The print versions of the Physical Therapy Korea are sent to the regular member of the society who have paid the subscription fee (70,000 KRW) and to any organizations subscribing to the journal. To subscribe the print versions of the Physical Therapy Korea, please contact the editorial office by E-mail at