Fig. 2. Raw sample data from a particular participant when fell forward and landed sideways with the landing side knee free of constraint at the time of hip impact. All four muscles ―(A) iliopsoas, (B) adductor longus, (C) gluteus medius, and (D) gluteus maximus― reached their maximum contraction prior to the hip impact. Changes in vertical impact force (E) and vertical position of a pelvis marker (F) were used to define the moments of fall initiation and hip impact, respectively (see details in texts). EMG, electromyography.
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