pISSN 2288-6982
eISSN 2288-7105



Original Article

Phys. Ther. Korea 2021; 28(3): 168-176

Published online August 20, 2021

© Korean Research Society of Physical Therapy

The Influence of Pronated Foot Posture on Knee Isokinetic Strength, Static and Dynamic Postural Stability in Healthy Young Individuals

Woochan Chun1 , Hee-su Kim1 , Sieun Park2 , PT, PhD, Jihea Park1 , Seunghee Shim1 , Sookyoung Park1 , PT, PhD

1Department of Physical Therapy, College of Health and Welfare, Woosong University, Daejeon, 2Department of Physical Therapy, Taegu Science University, Daegu, Korea

Correspondence to: Sookyoung Park

Received: July 13, 2021; Revised: July 22, 2021; Accepted: July 22, 2021

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background: The foot is a complex body structure that plays an important role in static and dynamic situations. Previous studies have reported that altered foot posture might affect knee joint strength and postural stability, however their relationship still remains unclear. Objects: The purpose of this study was to identify whether pronated foot posture has an influence on knee isokinetic strength and static and dynamic postural stability.
Methods: Forty healthy young males aged 18 to 26 years were included. Foot posture was evaluated using the Foot Posture Index-6 (FPI-6), and the subjects were divided into two groups according to their FPI-6 scores: a neutral foot group (n = 20, FPI-6 score 0 to +5) and a pronated foot group (n = 20, FPI-6 score +6 or more). Biodex Systems 3 isokinetic dynamometer was used to evaluate knee isokinetic strength and hamstring to quadriceps ratio at three angular velocities: 60°/sec, 90°/sec, and 180°/sec. The static and dynamic postural stability in a single-leg stance under the eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions were measured with a Biodex Balance System.
Results: There were no significant differences between the groups in knee isokinetic strength and static postural stability (p > 0.05), but there was a significant difference in the medial–lateral stability index (MLSI) for dynamic postural stability under the eyes-closed condition (p = 0.022). The FPI-6 scores correlated significantly only with the dynamic overall stability index (OSI) and the MLSI (OSI: R = 0.344, p = 0.030; MLSI: R = 0.409, p = 0.009) under the eyes-closed condition.
Conclusion: Participants with pronated foot had poorer medial–lateral dynamic stability under an eyes-closed condition than those without, and FPI-6 scores were moderately positively correlated with dynamic OSI and dynamic MLSI under the eyes-closed condition. These results suggest that pronated foot posture could induce a change in postural stability, but not in knee isokinetic strength.

Keywords: Foot posture, Muscle strength, Postural balance, Pronated foot