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pISSN 1225-8962
eISSN 2287-982X

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Phys. Ther. Korea 2023; 30(2): 136-143

Published online May 20, 2023

https://doi.org/10.12674/ptk.2023.30.2.136

© Korean Research Society of Physical Therapy

Multiple Relationships Between Impairment, Activity and Participation-based Clinical Outcome Measures in 200 Low Back Pain

Chanhee Park , PT, PhD

Department of Physical Therapy, Yonsei University, Wonju, Korea

Correspondence to: Chanhee Park
E-mail: chaneesm@yonsei.ac.kr
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2262-8555

Received: March 13, 2023; Revised: April 27, 2023; Accepted: April 28, 2023

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background: The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) model, created by the World Health Organization, provides a theoretical framework that can be applied in the diagnosis and treatment of various disorders. Objects: Our research purposed to ascertain the relationship between structure/function, activity, and participation domain variables of the ICF and pain, pain-associated disability, activities of daily living (ADL), and quality of life in patients with chronic low back pain (LBP).
Methods: Two-hundred patients with chronic LBP (mean age: 35.5 ± 8.8 years, females, n = 40) were recruited from hospital and community settings. We evaluated the body structure/ function domain variable using the Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS) and Roland–Morris disability (RMD) questionnaire. To evaluate the activity domain variable, we used the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale (QBDS). For clinical outcome measures, we used Short-form 12 (SF-12). Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to ascertain the relationships among the variables (p < 0.05). All the participants with LBP received 30 minutes of conventional physical therapy 3 days/week for 4 weeks.
Results: There were significant correlations between the body structure/function domain (NPRS and RMD questionnaire), activity domain (ODI and QBDS), and participation domain variables (SF-12), rending from pre-intervention (r = –0.723 to 0.783) and postintervention (r = –0.742 to 0.757, p < 0.05).
Conclusion: The identification of a significant difference between these domain variables point to important relationships between pain, disability, performance of ADL, and quality in participants with LBP.

Keywords: Correlation of data, International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, Low back pain, Musculoskeletal pain, Outcome assessment

Article

Original Article

Phys. Ther. Korea 2023; 30(2): 136-143

Published online May 20, 2023 https://doi.org/10.12674/ptk.2023.30.2.136

Copyright © Korean Research Society of Physical Therapy.

Multiple Relationships Between Impairment, Activity and Participation-based Clinical Outcome Measures in 200 Low Back Pain

Chanhee Park , PT, PhD

Department of Physical Therapy, Yonsei University, Wonju, Korea

Correspondence to:Chanhee Park
E-mail: chaneesm@yonsei.ac.kr
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2262-8555

Received: March 13, 2023; Revised: April 27, 2023; Accepted: April 28, 2023

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background: The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) model, created by the World Health Organization, provides a theoretical framework that can be applied in the diagnosis and treatment of various disorders. Objects: Our research purposed to ascertain the relationship between structure/function, activity, and participation domain variables of the ICF and pain, pain-associated disability, activities of daily living (ADL), and quality of life in patients with chronic low back pain (LBP).
Methods: Two-hundred patients with chronic LBP (mean age: 35.5 ± 8.8 years, females, n = 40) were recruited from hospital and community settings. We evaluated the body structure/ function domain variable using the Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS) and Roland–Morris disability (RMD) questionnaire. To evaluate the activity domain variable, we used the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale (QBDS). For clinical outcome measures, we used Short-form 12 (SF-12). Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to ascertain the relationships among the variables (p < 0.05). All the participants with LBP received 30 minutes of conventional physical therapy 3 days/week for 4 weeks.
Results: There were significant correlations between the body structure/function domain (NPRS and RMD questionnaire), activity domain (ODI and QBDS), and participation domain variables (SF-12), rending from pre-intervention (r = –0.723 to 0.783) and postintervention (r = –0.742 to 0.757, p < 0.05).
Conclusion: The identification of a significant difference between these domain variables point to important relationships between pain, disability, performance of ADL, and quality in participants with LBP.

Keywords: Correlation of data, International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, Low back pain, Musculoskeletal pain, Outcome assessment

Table 1 . Participants’ demographic and clinical characteristics.

VariableValue
Sex (Male, female)200 (160, 40)
Age (y)44.83 ± 17.42
Height (cm)157.83 ± 18.88
Weight (kg)68.42 ± 19.23
Onset month6.52 ± 2.18

Values are presented as number only or mean ± standard deviation..


Table 2 . Comparison of pre- and postintervention values.

VariablePre-interventionPostinterventionp-value***
NPRS6.76 ± 1.383.50 ± 2.140.001
RMD14.72 ± 2.488.38 ± 2.090.001
ODI45.51 ± 8.7626.48 ± 8.480.001
QBDS28.38 ± 10.2818.34 ± 6.110.001
SF-1258.34 ± 8.1371.28 ± 7.730.001

Values are presented as mean ± standard deviation. NPRS, Numeric Pain Rating Scale; RMD, Roland–Morris disability; ODI, Oswestry Disability Index; QBDS, Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale; SF-12, Short-form 12. ***p < 0.001..


Table 3 . Correlations between clinical outcome variables pre-intervention.

VariableNPRSRMDODIQBDSSF-12
NPRS-----
RMD0.641***----
ODI0.587***0.611*---
QBDS0.598*0.783***0.671*--
SF-12–0.334*–0.648*–0.513*–0.723***-

NPRS, Numeric Pain Rating Scale; RMD, Roland–Morris disability; ODI, Oswestry Disability Index; QBDS, Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale; SF-12, Short-form 12; –, not available. *p < 0.05, ***p < 0.001..


Table 4 . Multiple correlations between clinical outcome variables postintervention.

VariableNPRSRMDODIQBDSSF-12
NPRS-----
RMD0.687*----
ODI0.693***0.518*---
QBDS0.543*0.668***0.757*--
SF-12–0.287*–0.593*–0.742*–0.581***-

NPRS, Numeric Pain Rating Scale; RMD, Roland–Morris disability; ODI, Oswestry Disability Index; QBDS, Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale; SF-12, Short-form 12; –, not available. *p < 0.05, ***p < 0.001..